JAB: This thesis gives a comprehensive look at sport across Canada during the first two decades of the twentieth century with a focus on the changing nature of recreation imposed by the First World War. This is accomplished by giving a brief summery of the sport and social history of Canada from Confederation to the end of the study period, followed by detailed analysis of a variety of summer, winter, aquatic and equestrian sports and the important institutions and events that shaped or changed the nature of them. The author has a decided focus on the important technological innovations of this period and takes the position that rather than hinder, the First World improved the role of sports in Canada, the increased presence of women being an example. Highlights of Alberta sport can be found in almost every sport covered, examples include: the construction of auto racing tracks in both Edmonton and Calgary by 1910 (p. 31), the growth of a popular modified girls' baseball game, similar to softball, played in Edmonton's public schools during the war (p. 55-56), the founding of the Big-Four football league in Alberta (p. 100-101), the Canadian championship victories of speed skater Okie B. Bush of Edmonton in 1909 (p. 291) and an account of the first years of the Edmonton Grads as an example of the growing presence of women in sports, particularly indoor variants (p. 411-412). Archival photos from Glenbow are used as illustrations throughout.